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Roadside Geology of Minnesota


Learn about the Geology of Minnesota with maps, photos and expert descriptions! This 6"x9" paperback has 355 pages that are packed with detailed information about Minnesota Geology. See table of contents below.

Roadside Geology of MinnesotaTable of Contents

Introduction 1
Understanding the Earth5
Plate Tectonics5
Archean Time8
Early Proterozoic Time10
Iron-Formations13
Middle to Late Proterozoic Time15
Midcontinent Rift System15
Paleozoic Time18
Mesozoic Time20
Tertiary Time (Paleogene-Neogene)21
Pleistocene Time22
Glacial Deposits25
Glacial Lakes and Glacial Rivers29
Holocene Time30
Land of 10,000 Lakes31
Peatlands31
Vegetation Changes34
Continental Divides, Rivers, and Drainage Basins36
Northeastern Minnesota 39
Glacial Geology39
Bedrock Geology40
Vermilion District40
Animikie Basin and Iron-Formation41
Duluth Complex and North Shore Volcanic Group44
ROAD GUIDES47
Duluth47
Interstate 35: Duluth - Twin Cities56
US 2: Duluth - Grand Rapids66
US 53: Duluth - International Falls71
US 169: Twin Cities - Grand Rapids93
US 169/Minnesota 169: Grand Rapids - Ely96
Minnesota 1: Illgen City - Ely114
Minnesota 11: International Falls - Voyageurs National Park116
Minnesota 23: Duluth - St. Cloud121
Minnesota 38: Grand Rapids - Effie124
Minnesota 61: Duluth - Canadian Border128
Minnesota 210: Fond du Lac - Brainerd157
Vermilion Trail (County Road 4 and Minnesota 135): Duluth - Biwabik - Tower167
Gunflint Trail (County Road 12): Grand Marais - Trails End Campground170
Echo Trail (County Roads 88 and 116): Ely - Echo Lake180
National Forest Highway 11 (County Roads 15, 16, and 110): Silver Bay - Hoyt Lakes186
Northwestern and Central Minnesota 191
Glacial Geology191
Bedrock Geology194
ROAD GUIDES196
Interstate 94: Twin Cities - Moorhead196
US 2: Grand Rapids - East Grand Forks200
US 10: Twin Cities - Moorhead204
US 12: Twin Cities - Ortonville207
US 59: Canadian Border - Erskine208
US 71: International Falls - Morton209
US 75: Canadian Border - Ortonville214
Minnesota 9: Breckenridge - New London215
Minnesota 11: International Falls - Karlstad216
Minnesota 23: St. Cloud - Granite Falls226
Minnesota 28: Sauk Centre - Browns Valley228
Minnesota 72: Blackduck - Baudette232
Minnesota 210: Brainerd - Breckenridge233
Minnesota 371: Brainerd - Little Falls237
Southwestern Minnesota 239
Glacial Geology239
Bedrock Geology242
ROAD GUIDES245
Interstate 90: South Dakota Border - Fairmont245
US 14: New Ulm - South Dakota Border247
US 71: Morton - Jackson248
US 75: Ortonville - Interstate 90251
Minnesota 23: Granite Falls - Interstate 90257
Southeastern Minnesota 265
Glacial Geology265
Bedrock Geology267
St. Peter Sandstone272
Deicke K-Bentonite272
Sinkholes and Caves274
ROAD GUIDES277
Twin Cities277
Interstate 35: Twin Cities - Iowa Border284
Interstate 90: Fairmont - La Crosse, Wisconsin287
US 14: Winona - New Ulm290
US 52: Twin Cities - Iowa Border292
US 61: St. Paul - La Crescent299
US 169: Twin Cities - Blue Earth310
Minnesota 16: La Crescent - Dexter313
Minnesota 95: Taylors Falls - Stillwater315
Glossary323
Additional Readings 333
References Cited 335
Index339